CONTENT


FARMACIA Nr.3, 2007:

  1. STUDY CONCERNING PHARMACOKINETICS OF GLICLAZIDE AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION.
    MARIA-CRISTINA RANETTI, VALENTINA ANUTA, DALIA MIRON, F. RADULESCU, I. MIRCIOIU, C. MIRCIOIU
    Abstract


  2. ASSAY OF SOME HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIANT SUBSTANCES (LOVASTATIN, SIMVASTATIN) USING NP-HPLC.
    CORINA-CRISTINA ARAMĂ, IOANA DRĂGHICI, CRINA-MARIA MONCIU, ANGELA NEDELCU, ALEXANDRA NEAGU, CLEMENTINA COSTANTINESCU
    Abstract


  3. ANTIANDROGENS - NEW VALENCES IN PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA THERAPY.
    ROXANA LUCACIU, LUCIA DICAN, CORINA IONESCU, M.BOJITĂ
    Abstract


  4. QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSAR). III. GENERALIZED TOPOLOGICAL DESCRIPTORS BASED ON RECIPROCAL DISTANCE MATRIX FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICOLOGICAL QSARs.
    V. VLAIA, T. OLARIU, C. CIUBOTARIU, M. MEDELEANU, D. DRAGOS, LAVINIA URSICA, D. CIUBOTARIU.
    Abstract


  5. STUDY OF POLYPHENOLS FROM THE SPECIES THYMUS PULEGIOIDES L. (LAMIACEAE).
    MARIANA PAVEL, LAURIAN VLASE
    Abstract


  6. THE NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE COMBINED 5-NITRO-1H-INDAZOLE AND MINOCYCLINE THERAPY
    ROXANA-GEORGIANA TAUSER, D. ST. ANTOHE
    Abstract


  7. A PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC AND PHARMACOECONOMIC APPROACH OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
    DIANA SIMONA NEGRU, S. MARKUS, AURELIA NICOLETA CRISTEA
    Abstract


  8. THE EFFICACY OF TREATMENT WITH TIAPRIDE/CARBAMAZEPINE VERSUS DIAZEPAM IN ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL - COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY.
    DANIELA IONESCU, S. FUNAR-TIMOFEI, S. DRAGAN, G. BRAILEAN, C. CRISTESCU
    Abstract


  9. ANTIBACTERIAL BEHAVIOR OF ELECTRO GENERATED (1S, 2S)-2-AMINO-1-(4-NITROPHENYL)- PROPANE-1,3-DIOL DERIVATIVES.
    CECILIA CRISTEA, MARIA JITARU, GH. VOICULESCU, C. MOINET
    Abstract


  10. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON VIOLA ARVENSIS MURRAY (VIOLACEAE).
    ANCA TOIU, ILIOARA ONIGA, M. TĂMA
    Abstract


  11. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW (SULFONAMIDOPHENYL)-AMIDES OF N-(m-NITROBENZOYL)-D,L-METHIONINE.
    OTILIA PINTILIE, V. SUNEL, LENUTA PROFIRE, A. PUI
    Abstract


  12. HPLC ANALYSES ON POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACHILLEA SPECIES.
    MIHAELA POPOVICI, L. VLASE, ILIOARA ONIGA, M. TĂMAS
    Abstract


  13. PACLITAXEL-LOADED POLY(LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) NANOPARTICLES. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO RELEASE.
    MARCELA ACHIM, L.VLASE, MANUELA BANCIU, S.E.LEUCUTA
    Abstract


  14. INTERACTION CONDITIONS OF SULPHATE COPPER WITH RUTIN.
    ANA-MARIA DĂNILĂ
    Abstract




ABSTRACTS:

1. STUDY CONCERNING PHARMACOKINETICS OF GLICLAZIDE AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION.
MARIA-CRISTINA RANETTI1*, VALENTINA ANUTA2,3, DALIA MIRON2,3, F. RADULESCU2,3, I. MIRCIOIU3, C. MIRCIOIU2,3

1Army Center for Medical Research, 37 C.A. Rosetti Str., Bucharest, Romania
2UMF Carol Davila, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Traian Vuia Str., Bucharest, Romania
3Biopharmacy & Pharmacol Res, 23 Pitar Mos Str., Bucharest, Romania
*corresponding author: cranetti@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Aim of the study. The study presents the development and validation of a simple HPLC method for the determination of gliclazide (GCZ) in human plasma, and evaluation of pharmacokinetics of glicazide after oral administration to healthy volunteers.
Materials and methods. Reversed-phase mechanism with UV detection and deproteinisation plasma samples was chosen for determination of gliclazide. The internal standard was glybenclamide. HPLC method used a Kromasil 100-5 C18 column, with an isocratic elution (1 mL/min) at 45°C column temperature. 24 healthy volunteers were enrolled into a single-dose (80mg), two-way, cross-over bioequivalence study.
Results. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.05-10 ”g/mL (r=1.0000, n=8), with a detection limit of 0.05 ”g/mL. Recovery from plasma samples was 94.9 %. Pharmacokinetics parameters were found to follow a bimodal distribution of plasma level curves in both reference and tested drug.
Conclusion. The proposed method was validated and proved to be adequate for the bioequivalence study. The obtained maximum plasma levels were similar with those reported in the literature.

- Gliclazide
- HPLC
- Plasma samples
- Pharmacokinetics
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2. ASSAY OF SOME HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIANT SUBSTANCES (LOVASTATIN, SIMVASTATIN) USING NP-HPLC.
CORINA-CRISTINA ARAMĂ, IOANA DRĂGHICI, CRINA-MARIA MONCIU, ANGELA NEDELCU, ALEXANDRA NEAGU, CLEMENTINA COSTANTINESCU

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, 6 Traian Vuia str., Bucharest

- Abstract -

We established a new selective method for the assay of simvastatin in simvastatin-lovastatin mixtures (lovastatin beeing one of the impurities generated in the synthesis of simvastatin). The suitability of normal-phase-high-performance liquid cromatography (NP-HPLC) for this kind of analysis was studied by testing different chromatographic systems using silica as stationary phase and various mixtures of solvents as mobile phase, both in isocratic and gradient procedure. The most adequate experimental conditions were validated and used for simultaneous assay of simvastatin and identification of lovastatin in sintethical mixtures and dosage forms.

- NP-HPLC
- simvastatin
- lovastatin
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3. ANTIANDROGENS - NEW VALENCES IN PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA THERAPY.
ROXANA LUCACIU1, LUCIA DICAN2, CORINA IONESCU1, M.BOJITĂ3

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hațieganu" Cluj-Napoca, Pasteur 4/6
1Departament of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry and Clinical laboratory
2Departament of Medical Biochemistry
3Departament of Drug Analysis


- Abstract -

Once a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer is made and the patient is staged, the patient may choose a treatment from available options in collaboration with his physicians. Patients with advanced prostate cancer represent the traditional candidates for hormone therapy. Hormone management continues to occupy a significant portion of the clinical practice of urologist and of clinical trials. Antiandrogens are a class of drugs that act at the androgen receptor level to inhibit the stimulatory effects of testosterone and its metabolites.

- prostate cancer
- antiandrogens
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4. QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSAR). III. GENERALIZED TOPOLOGICAL DESCRIPTORS BASED ON RECIPROCAL DISTANCE MATRIX FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICOLOGICAL QSARs.
V. VLAIA1, T. OLARIU1, C. CIUBOTARIU2, M. MEDELEANU3, D. DRAGOS1, LAVINIA URSICA1, D. CIUBOTARIU 1*

1Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, P-ta Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 Timisoara, Romania
2Department of Computer Sciences, University "Politehnica", Timisoara
3Department of Organic Chemistry, University "Politehnica", Timisoara
*corresponding author: dciubotariu@mail.dnttm.ro


- Abstract -

In this paper we present a set of generalized topological descriptors based on the reciprocal distance (RD) matrix and their application on the series of compounds which exhibit various toxicological effects. Starting from the idea that the elements rdi of the RD matrix may be considered as measures of topological distance strains (TDS), we have defined as local vertex invariants (LOVIs) of molecular graph the following quantities: , where N is the total number of vertices from a given molecular graph. Thus, we may define the internal topological distance strain (ITDS) of order k, , as follows, . The set of generalized topological distance indices (GTDIs), , has been constructed as the higher order connectivity indices , but with the LOVIs presented here. We also define a metric on the topological molecular graph, given by corresponding bond lengths (in A), and we develop a new set of GTDIs, . These two sets of GTDIs were used in predicting toxicity of aliphatic alcohols on simple organisms like larvae and tadpoles and on Tetrahymena pyriformis and Pimephales promelas. The obtained good QSAR results, the correlation coefficients (r) being greater than 0.980, with exception of . The stability and the predictive power of the best multiple linear regression (MLR) models were tested by a cross-validation procedure using a leave-n-out technique. The GTDIs seems to be a good mathematical representation of chemical structure in numerical form with a priori physicochemical meaning.

- reciprocal distance matrix
- topological strain
- generalized topological distance indices
- toxicity
- QSAR
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5. STUDY OF POLYPHENOLS FROM THE SPECIES THYMUS PULEGIOIDES L. (LAMIACEAE).
MARIANA PAVEL1*, LAURIAN VLASE2

1University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Bucharest, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Phytotherapy, 6, Traian Vuia
2University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hațieganu", Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, 12, Ion Creangă
*corresponding author: mariana_pavel2003@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Thymus pulegioides L. (Lamiaceae) is a wide spread species in Romania and its content in flavonoids and polyphenolcarboxilic acids is very poorly studied. Knowing the important pharmacological properties of these compounds (antioxidant, antispasmodic, colecistokinetic) this paper proposes to identify and measure these types of constituents in Thymus pulegioides species collected from two different areas of Romania. A HPLC method already used for the analyze of these compounds in plants was applied for methanol extracts purified by subsequent extractions in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol. The following compounds were identified and measured: caffeic acid, caftaric acid, gentisic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin.

- Thymus pulegioides
- Flavones
- polyphenolcarboxilic acids
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6. THE NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE COMBINED 5-NITRO-1H-INDAZOLE AND MINOCYCLINE THERAPY.
ROXANA-GEORGIANA TAUSER1, D. ST. ANTOHE2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy
2Department of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery, Faculty of Medicine University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa", 16 Universitatii street, 700115 Iasi, Romania


- Abstract -

Our study proposes to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of combined therapy 5-nitro-1H-indazole (5-NI) and minocycline, during surgically induced cortical ischemia on rat. Focal cortical ischemia was performed by electrocoagulation of middle cerebral artery terminal branches. We have operated 20 rats divided into four equal groups (I-IV), each group being treated 30 minutes after the hypoxic-ischemic insult as follows: group I (control) with physiologic saline; group II with 50 mg/kg i.p. minocycline; group III with 15 mg/kg i.p. 5-NI; group IV with 50 mg/kg i.p. minocycline and 15 mg/kg i.p. 5-NI. The area of cortical infarctus was measured by a computer-assisted morphometrical method. Each substance displayed neuroprotective action, reducing the penumbra area of cortical infarctus in comparison with control group. The most important reduction of infarcted area, recorded at group IV treated with 5-NI and minocycline, suggests the potentiation of the neuroprotective effects. Conculsion The association of 5-NI with minocycline seems to be a promising neuroprotective strategy in stroke and neurodegenerative disorders.

- 5-nitro-1H-indazole
- minocycline
- neuroprotection
- brain ischemia
- infarctus penumbra
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7. A PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC AND PHARMACOECONOMIC APPROACH OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS.
DIANA SIMONA NEGRU1*, S. MARKUS2, AURELIA NICOLETA CRISTEA1

1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila" Bucharest
2"Santa Vita" Diagnosis Center, Sighetu - Marmației
*corresponding author: di_negru@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

This study uses the summarized medical records of selected patients, known or newly diagnosed with type 2 DM, to assess the type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) treatment according to therapeutic classes and costs.
The results revealed high incidence of diabetes complications (in 24 patients) or in association with major chronic diseases (in 45 patients), mainly due to low or lack of blood glucose control. Unbalanced dietary regimen along with mismanaged or even cessation of antidiabetic medication is the main cause that led to complications. Medication from all available classes, in single-drug or combined therapies, are used by physicians to treat the patients. In this respect, the study showed that treatment for complicated diabetes costs double or even triple than for uncomplicated one. However, the increased prevalence of major complications or other chronic diseases supports the conclusion that compliance with medical and nutrition therapy is very low. Therefore, pharmacists who involve themselves and provide proper care can identify, monitor and educate diabetic patients and may help them living a better life.

- diabetes mellitus
- blood glucose
- oral antidiabetic
- compliance
- medical nutrition therapy
- auto-monitoring
- pharmacoeconomy
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8. THE EFFICACY OF TREATMENT WITH TIAPRIDE/CARBAMAZEPINE VERSUS DIAZEPAM IN ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL - COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY.
DANIELA IONESCU*1, S. FUNAR-TIMOFEI2, S. DRAGAN3, G. BRAILEAN4, C. CRISTESCU5

1Department of Toxicology, Victor Babes University of Medecine and Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Square, 300041 Timisoara, Romania;
2"C. Dragulescu" Institute of Chemistry, Romanian Academy
3Department of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Victor Babes University of Medecine and Pharmacy
4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Jebel
5Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Victor Babes University of Medecine and Pharmacy
*corresponding author:daniela_ionescu2002@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

The goal is to evaluate the efficacy of tiapride/carbamazepine therapy in alcohol withdrawaded patients compared with the standard therapy, with diazepam. The study was performed in a specialized hospital for addictive disorders during 2002-2004. A total of 289 patients with alcohol dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-DSM-IV; International Classification of Diseases- ICD 10) admitted for alcohol detoxification therapy (181 males and 108 females, mean age 45.2 ± 7.3 years) were eligible in the study. Those with withdrawal simptomatology were assigned in two treatment groups: (A) tiapride/carbamazepine (n=144) and (B) diazepam (n=145); within a treatment duration of 10 days medication was given up to the following maximum doses: tiapride 900 mg/day; carbamazepine 800 mg/day; diazepam 60 mg/day. The simptomatology was measured with the Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (CIWA). No differences in sociodemographics and history variables between the two medication groups were observed. Parameters of efficacy and safety were not different between lots: delirium 3.9% vs 4%; seizure 0.8% vs 0.7%; side effects 5.2% vs 4.7%; The combination tiapride/ carbamazepine should be considered as an efficient treatment in alcohol intoxicated patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome because, particularly, it does not induce respiratory depression or have a misuse or addictive potential.

- Carbamazepine
- Tiapride
- Diazepam
- alcohol withdrawal therapy
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9. ANTIBACTERIAL BEHAVIOR OF ELECTRO GENERATED (1S, 2S)-2-AMINO-1-(4-NITROPHENYL)- PROPANE-1,3-DIOL DERIVATIVES.
CECILIA CRISTEA1*, MARIA JITARU2, GH. VOICULESCU3, C. MOINET4

1University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu", Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 4 Pasteur 400 349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Francophone Associated Laboratory, 11 Arany Janos st., 400 021 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3Clinical Hospital of Infection and Tropical Diseases "Victor Babes", 281 Mihai Bravu, Bucharest, Romania
4Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et Organométalliques, Institut de Chimie, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France
*corresponding author: ccristea@umfcluj.ro


- Abstract -

Derivatives of (1S, 2S)-2-amino-1-(4-nitrophenyl)- propane-1,3-diol were studied because of their potential biological activity.
Electrochemical behaviour of several starting compounds was investigated using different electrolytes and electrode materials in order to find the adequate conditions for their electroreduction. For this purpose two different types of electrochemical cells were used for the electro generation of new heterocycles.
Their antibacterial activity was investigated on several gram-negative and gram-positive bacilli using two techniques: broth-dilution method and agar-dilution method. Eight of the investigated derivatives were active upon several strains cultures (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

- electrosynthesis
- redox cell
- N-sulphonylated hydroxylamine
- nitroso derivatives
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10. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON VIOLA ARVENSIS MURRAY (VIOLACEAE).
ANCA TOIU*, ILIOARA ONIGA, M. TĂMAS

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu", Faculty of Pharmacy, 12, Ion Creangă Street, 400023, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*corresponding author: ancamaria_toiu@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

In this phytochemical study we analysed qualitatively and quantitatively the following active substances: polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids, polyphenol carboxylic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, proanthocyanins) and mucilages from aerial parts of Viola arvensis Murray. Our 5 samples of vegetal products, harvested from different time period from the spontaneous flora, were studied by chromatographic, spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods. In all analyzed samples we identified rutoside and caffeic acid, and after hydrolysis, quercetol and kaempferol as flavonoid aglycones. We determined the content in flavonoids (0.483-1.564%), polyphenol carboxylic acids (0.078-0.314%), tannins (1.036-4.30%), anthocyanins (14.786-24.518Ś 10-3 %) and proanthocyanins (0.038-0.074%). The isolated mucilages are present in high concentration (15.54%), and after acid hydrolysis we identified glucose, galactose, ramnose, arabinose, glucuronic and galacturonic acids.

- Viola arvensis
- polyphenolic compounds
- flavonoids
- mucilages
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11. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW (SULFONAMIDOPHENYL)-AMIDES OF N-(m-NITROBENZOYL)-D,L-METHIONINE.
OTILIA PINTILIE1, V. SUNEL1, LENUȚA PROFIRE2, A. PUI3

1Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, 3Department of Inorganic Chemistry; Faculty of Chemistry, "Al. I. Cuza" University, B-dul Carol I, no. 11, 700506 Iasi, Romania
2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, "Gr. T. Popa" Medicine and Pharmacy University, Universitatii Street no. 16, 700115 Iasi, Romania


- Abstract -

In order to obtain new compounds with potential antimicrobial activity some new (sulfonamidophenyl)-amides of N-(m-nitrobenzoyl)-D,L-methionine were synthesized. The compounds were obtained by decyclization of 2-(m-nitrophenyl)-4-( -methylthioethyl)-??2-oxazolin-5-one with various sulfonamides. The chemical structure of the new sulfonamides was confirmed by elemental analysis data and IR and 1H-NMR spectral measurements. The compounds were also investigated for their antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Proteus vulgaris strains.

- D,L-methionine
- sulfonamide derivatives
- antimicrobial activity
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12. HPLC ANALYSES ON POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACHILLEA SPECIES.
MIHAELA POPOVICI1, L. VLASE2, ILIOARA ONIGA3, M. TĂMAS1

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hațieganu", Faculty of Pharmacy, 13 Emil Isac Str., Cluj-Napoca, RO-400023
1Department of Pharmaceutical Botany
2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy,
3Department of Pharmacognosy


- Abstract -

We focused on 2 species of Achillea (Asteraceae): Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) and Achillea distans W et K. (mountain yarrow).
Achillea distans is one of the Achillea species which can substitute Achillea millefolium, thus we proposed a comparative analyse of polyphenolic coumpounds (flavonoids and caffeic acid derivates) from these two species.
For chemical characterization, we analysed qualitatively and quantitatively the polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and caffeic acid derivates), by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), before and after hydrolysis. We identified 6 polyphenolic compounds: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-cumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteolin and apigenin.

- Achillea millefolium
- Achillea distans
- polyphenols
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13. PACLITAXEL-LOADED POLY(LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) NANOPARTICLES. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO RELEASE.
MARCELA ACHIM1*, L.VLASE1, MANUELA BANCIU2, S.E.LEUCUTA1

1 University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu", Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 13, Emil Isac Street, 400023, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2 "Babes-Bolyai" University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Experimental Biology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*corresponding author: achimmarcela@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

The aim of this study was to develop a polymeric drug delivery system for paclitaxel. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. The influence of different experimental parameters on the size of nanoparticles was evaluated. A dynamic light-scattering method was used to determine the nanoparticles size. The incorporation efficiency of paclitaxel in the nanoparticles was also evaluated, using a HPLC method.
Our results demonstrated that the mean diameter of nanoparticles was affected by: copolymer concentration, paclitaxel concentration and organic to aqueous phase ratio. The results showed that the average incorporation efficiency was between 92 and 96%. The in vitro release behavior of paclitaxel from the developed nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic pattern characterized by an initial fast release during the first 24 hours, followed by a continuous slower release.

- nanoparticles
- poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)
- paclitaxel
- nanoprecipitation
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14. INTERACTION CONDITIONS OF SULPHATE COPPER WITH RUTIN.
ANA-MARIA DĂNILĂ

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr.T.Popa", Universitatii Street 16, Iasi, 700015, Romania.

- Abstract -

Ultraviolet-visible absorbtion spectroscopy is a very useful technique for flavonoid structure analysis. The interactions of flavonoids with metal ions can be demonstrated spectrophotometrically by changes in the absorption spectra. The aim of this work was the study of the chelation position of Rutin and the influence of pH medium for the complex Rutin-Cu2+ formation.

- Rutin
- Apigenin
- Catechol
- UV-VIS spectroscopy
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