CONTENT


FARMACIA Nr.5, 2007:

  1. INFLUENCE OF LOW-VISCOSITY POLYMERS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF ASCORBIC ACID TABLETS.
    MICHAEL A. ODENIYI, KOLAWOLE T. JAIYEOBA
    Abstract


  2. INTER- AND INTRAVARIABILITY CROSS-ANALYSIS FOR CYP3A AND CYP2D6 SUBSTRATES.
    F.RĂDULESCU, V.A.VOICU, DALIA MIRON, C. MIRCIOIU
    Abstract


  3. INFLUENCE OF HYPERICI HERBA ON THE BLOOD PARAMETERS OF THE RATS.NOTE II. WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT.
    CLAUDIA-CRINA TOMA, V. CUCUIU, G. D. MOGOSANU, H. POPESCU
    Abstract


  4. LC-MS ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM VIOLA TRICOLOR L. (VIOLACEAE).
    ANCA TOIU, L. VLASE, ILIOARA ONIGA, M. TĂMAS
    Abstract


  5. NP-HPLC IN BENZODIAZEPINES ANALYSIS. ASSAY OF FLUNITRAZEPAM AND MIDAZOLAM.
    CORINA-CRISTINA ARAMĂ, CAMELIA MALANCIUC, CRINA-MARIA MONCIU, CAMELIA NICOLESCU, MARINELA FLOREA, RALUCA HURUBEANU
    Abstract


  6. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING THE NEURONAL GABA CONCENTRATION IN THE PSCHYONEUROENDOCRINE BEHAVIOURAL ADRENERGIC AND OPIOID TYPES AFTER ACUTE STRESS AND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF PROPRANOLOL.
    ANDREEA LETITIA NITULESCU-ARSENE, AURELIA CRISTEA, DANIELA GRADINARU, NICULINA MITREA, ADINA BECHEANU
    Abstract


  7. NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE EXPRESSION IN RAT ASTROCYTES.
    ADINA BECHEANU, DANIELA GRĂDINARU, NICULINA MITREA
    Abstract


  8. UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY OF METOPROLOL. NOTE 1. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DIRECT AND THE OXIDATIVE METHODS.
    IOANA CACOVEAN, MIHAELA ILIE, MAGDALENA BĂDULESCU, DAN BĂLĂLĂU, MIRIANA GUBANDRU
    Abstract


  9. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON CERASI STIPITES.
    MARIA-LIDIA POPESCU, MIHAELA DINU
    Abstract


  10. IMPROVING POSSIBILITIES OF MONOETHYL-SUCCINYL CHLORIDE SDYNTHESIS - AN ACYLATION AGENT FOR ERYTHROMYCIN.
    CĂTĂLINA DANIELA STAN, ALINA STEFANACHE, DAN EUGEN DIACONU, MIRCEA DUMITRACHE
    Abstract


  11. STUDIES REGARDING PREPARATION AND EVALUATION FROM OPHTHALMIC THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM OF IN SITU GEL FORMING SYSTEMS WITH PIROXICAM.
    L. HÎNCU, D. LUPULEASA, A. ANDRIES, V. ORDEANU, MAGDALENA MITITELU, OANA MĂNESCU
    Abstract


  12. INTERNAL STANDARD VERSUS EXTERNAL STANDARD IN BIOANALYTICAL ASSAY FOR BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDIES.
    I. MIRCIOIU, A.ALDEA, VALENTINA ANUTA, OLIMPIA NEAGU, DALIA MIRON, F. RADULESCU, F. ENACHE
    Abstract


  13. STUDY OF ALBENDAZOLE-HYDROXYPROPYL-ß-CYCLODEXTRIN BINARY SYSTEMS.
    CRISTINA TRANDAFIRESCU, ÁRPÁD GYÉRESI, MIHÁLY KATA, ZOLTÁN AIGNER, ZOLTÁN SZABADAI
    Abstract


  14. EXPRESSION OF METALLOTHIONEIN IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.
    CAMELIA STĂNCIULESCU, NICULINA MITREA, MONICA BANITĂ, CĂTĂLINA PISOSCHI, VIOLETA COMĂNESCU
    Abstract


  15. PHARMACEUTICAL HUMAN RESOURCES IN OPEN CIRCUIT PHARMACIES (COMMUNITY) - FACTORS FOR MEDICINE ACCESSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY.
    ADRIANA ELENA TĂEREL
    Abstract




ABSTRACTS:

1. INFLUENCE OF LOW-VISCOSITY POLYMERS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF ASCORBIC ACID TABLETS.
MICHAEL A. ODENIYI, KOLAWOLE T. JAIYEOBA

Dept. of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy,Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
*corresponding author: deleodeniyi@gmail.com


- Abstract -

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of low-viscosity hydrophilic polymers hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), and Khaya gum on the tablet strength, release properties and stability of ascorbic acid tablets. Ascorbic acid granules were formulated in a medium shear mixer to contain 5-25% concentrations of the low-viscosity polymers. Granules were compressed at different pressures to obtain compacts of varying relative densities. Compressional properties were analysed using Heckel plots,tensile strength and dissolution rates were determined by standard methods. The mechanical and chemical stability of the tablet formulations were also analysed under accelerated stability conditions.
The results obtained show that tablets of good mechanical and release properties were obtained from the different polymers and they were found to be stable both physically and chemically after storage at 70% RH and 45oC with no significant (p > 0.05) change in chemical content.
Low viscosity polymers can be used in protecting drugs like ascorbic acid from oxidative degradation using conventional granulation methods of preparation.

- ascorbic acid
- low-viscosity polymers
- tensile strength
- release properties
- stability
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2. INTER- AND INTRAVARIABILITY CROSS-ANALYSIS FOR CYP3A AND CYP2D6 SUBSTRATES.
F.RĂDULESCU, V.A.VOICU, DALIA MIRON, C. MIRCIOIU

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", 6 Traian Vuia street, Bucharest, Romania

- Abstract -

The polymorphic enzymes, membrane transport systems and drug receptors have a major impact on drugs pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacotoxicological profile.
In the current medical practice, either lack of therapeutic effect or severe adverse events, following "standard drug therapy", are commonly encountered. The widely recognized inter- and intraindividual variability on drug metabolism, disposition and response are frequently ignored by standard, rigid dose regimens, generating critical ethical problems.
The paper reveals the importance of correlated, scientifically based analysis of inter and intraindividual variability for both parent drug (PD) and its active metabolites (AM), the complementarities of the generated variability information for those active entities.
Data from bioequivalence studies on diltiazem, loratadine, mianserine, risperidone and tramadol were analyzed, focusing on the group distribution of metabolic ratio and interpretation of variability for various pharmacokinetic parameters.

- Intervariability
- Intravariability
- CYP3A substrates
- CYP2D6 substrates
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3. INFLUENCE OF HYPERICI HERBA ON THE BLOOD PARAMETERS OF THE RATS.NOTE II. WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT.
CLAUDIA-CRINA TOMA1, V. CUCUIU2, G. D. MOGOSANU3*, H. POPESCU3

1Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytotherapy
2Department of Pharmaceutical industry and Biotechnologies "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2 Eftimie Murgu Street, 300041 Romania
3Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytotherapy University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2-4 Petru Rares Street, 200349 Romania
*Corresponding author: mogosanu@umfcv.ro


- Abstract -

Hypericum perforatum L. is a traditional folk remedy used for the treatment of superficial wounds, scars, burns, ulcers, myalgia, and moderate depression. Hypericin is a photodynamic active plant pigment, which may cause a severe photodermatitis called hypericism, when higher amounts of St. John's wort are orally ingested. The active principles from Hyperici herba correlated with UV-B light are responsible for the phototoxic effects with the variation of white blood cell (WBC) count of the rats: a relative increasing of neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils; a relative decreasing of lymphocytes, the last being in direct relation with the cell immunity. Taking into account these toxic effects, it is recommended to avoid the direct exposing to the sun or to use some photoprotective creams with a high level of protection, during the treatment with medicinal products based on Hyperici herba.

- Hyperici herba
- rats
- white blood cell (CBC) count
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4. LC-MS ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOIDS FROM VIOLA TRICOLOR L. (VIOLACEAE).
ANCA TOIU*, L. VLASE, ILIOARA ONIGA, M. TĂMAS

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu", Faculty of Pharmacy, 12, Ion Creangă Street, 400023, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*Corresponding author: ancamaria_toiu@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

In order to continue our previous studies on chemical composition of Viola species from Romania, we analysed the flavonoids from aerial parts of Viola tricolor L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Ethanolic extracts of 2 samples of herbal drug, harvested from different places and time period from the spontaneous flora, were studied before and after acid hydrolysis. We have identified isoquercitrin, rutoside and quercitrin before hydrolysis and myricetol, quercetol, patuletin and kaempferol after hydrolysis.

- Viola tricolor
- Flavonoids
- Rutoside
- HPLC-MS
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5. NP-HPLC IN BENZODIAZEPINES ANALYSIS. ASSAY OF FLUNITRAZEPAM AND MIDAZOLAM.
CORINA-CRISTINA ARAMĂ*, CAMELIA MALANCIUC, CRINA-MARIA MONCIU, CAMELIA NICOLESCU, MARINELA FLOREA, RALUCA HURUBEANU

Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, 6th Traian Vuia str. Bucharest
*corresponding author: corinaarama@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

The need of highly sensitive methods in the assay of drugs of abuse made us investigate practical possibilities of using normal phase HPLC (NP-HPLC) in the benzodiazepines analysis.
Experimental parameters such as mobile phase composition (n-hexan/2-propanol with or without polar modifiers), temperature etc. and their effect on the adsorption equilibrium (the stationary phase used was unmodified silica) were evaluated.
The new chromatographic system (based on a mixed partition-adsorption separation mechanism) was choosed based on its selectivity in separation, identification and assay of flunitrazepam and midazolam.
The new established thoroughly validated methods proved to be useful as an alternative for the assay of flunitrazepam and midazolam in dosage forms.

- NP-HPLC analysis
- Benzodiazepines
- Flunitrazepam
- Midazolam
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6. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING THE NEURONAL GABA CONCENTRATION IN THE PSCHYONEUROENDOCRINE BEHAVIOURAL ADRENERGIC AND OPIOID TYPES AFTER ACUTE STRESS AND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF PROPRANOLOL.
ANDREEA LETITIA NITULESCU-ARSENE1*, AURELIA CRISTEA2, DANIELA GRADINARU1, NICULINA MITREA1, ADINA BECHEANU1

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Bucharest, Romania
1Department of Biochemistry
2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy
*corresponding author: andreeanitulescu@hotmail.com


- Abstract -

The aim of our study was to investigate, in mice, the relationships existing between the pschychoneuroendocrine behavioural type and the major inhibitory neuromediator of the nervous system, namely gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA).
We separated the animals into three pschychoneuroendocrine behavioural groups: the adrenergic type (the "A" type, described by Friedman and Rosenman-1980), the opioid type (the "O" type, described by Cristea-1993) and the equilibrated, intermediate, normal, "N" type. Animals were divided into these three groups according to their pain sensitivity, assessed using the hot plate test (60°C). We quantified GABA neuronal concentration for these 3 groups, following acute stress (forced swimming test) and after acute administration of propranolol (5mg/kgc, ip). Endogenous GABA concentration was evaluated using a fluorimetric method, based on the formation of a fluorescent product from the reaction between GABA and ninhydrin at alkaline pH and in the presence of glutamate.
In basal state, the neuronal GABA concentration is significantly higher in the "A" type, compared to both "N" and "0" types of behaviour. In contrast with the basal state, following acute stress, the "0" type developed important levels of GABA compared with both "A" and "N" types. The administration of propranolol, a classical blocker of the beta-adrenergic receptors, evoked important concentrations of neuronal GABA for the adrenergic "A" type, compared to both "N" and "O" types.
Our study brings interesting approaches regarding the possible molecular correlations existing between the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, and both adrenergic ("A") and opioid ("O") types of behaviour.

- GABA neuronal concentration
- psychoneuroendocrine type of behaviour
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7. NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE EXPRESSION IN RAT ASTROCYTES.
ADINA BECHEANU, DANIELA GRĂDINARU, NICULINA MITREA

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Bucharest
corresponding author: biochimiebucuresti@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be important messenger molecules in the induction of several genes involved in cellular xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification processes. Using mRNA analysis by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), this study aimed at following up the effects of an induced oxidative stress - caused by the "in vitro" exposure of cultured rat astrocytes to redox-cycling xenobiotics, known to generate superoxide radical (O2.-), on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. After a 48-hours treatment with moderate concentrations of quinones and bipyridinium compounds, the expression of these enzymes increased significantly in cultured astrocytes.

- astrocytes
- paraquat, menadione
- nitric oxide synthase
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8. UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY OF METOPROLOL. NOTE 1. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DIRECT AND THE OXIDATIVE METHODS.
IOANA CACOVEAN1, MIHAELA ILIE1*, MAGDALENA BĂDULESCU2, DAN BĂLĂLĂU1, MIRIANA GUBANDRU1

1"Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Toxicology Department, 6 Traian Vuia Str., Bucharest
2National Medicines Agency, 48 Aviator Sănătescu Str., Bucharest
*corresponding author: m16ilie@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Metoprolol is a rather widely used beta-blocker mostly administrated in cardiovascular maladies. Only a few reports exist on the intoxication with overdosed metoprolol. However, a rapid and easy to perform method for the quantitative determination of metoprolol tartrate in biologic matrices would be useful in its therapeutic monitoring, as well as in intoxication cases.
The paper presents two UV-VIS absorption methods applicable to the quantitative determination of metoprolol tartrate in biological matrices at therapeutic concentrations: the UV direct and the potassium permanganate oxidative methods.

- metoprolol tartrate
- direct UV method
- oxidative method
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9. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOBIOLOGICAL STUDY ON CERASI STIPITES.
MARIA-LIDIA POPESCU1*, MIHAELA DINU2

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Traian Vuia street, Bucharest
1Pharmacognosy. Phytochemistry. Phytotherapy Department
2Pharmaceutical Botany Department
*corresponding author: lidiapopescu24@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Cerasi stipites consists of the peduncles of mature fruits from Cerasus avium (L.) Munch. (sweet cherry) and/or Cerasus vulgaris Mill. (tart cherry), Rosaceae. The purpose of the present study aims to carry out comparative microscopic and chemical research and to assess the effect of the extract obtained from the both Cerasus species stipites on plant cell division. We identified the following anatomical elements: fibres, epidermal cells with anomocytic stomata, spirally vessels, cluster-crystals of calcium oxalate and parenchyma cells with lignified walls in both types of peduncles. This herbal product contains hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (6.391 ± 0.3303 g% in sweet cherry peduncles and 6.334 ± 0.7731 g% in tart cherry peduncles, expressed as chlorogenic acid), flavonoids (0.095 ± 0.0037 g% in sweet cherry peduncles and 0.085 ± 0.0062 g% in tart cherry peduncles, expressed as rutin), triterpenes (aglycones and glycosides), proanthocianins, allantoin, condensed tannins and mucilages. Rutin, hyperoside, quercetin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ursolic acid were found in Cerasi stipites using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The phytobiological study established total mitoinhibitory action of the aqueous extracts 2 % obtained from sweet cherry peduncles and tart cherry peduncles. The extracts were not cytotoxic.

- Cerasi stipites
- flavonoids
- hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives
- mitoinhibitory action
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10. IMPROVING POSSIBILITIES OF MONOETHYL-SUCCINYL CHLORIDE SDYNTHESIS - AN ACYLATION AGENT FOR ERYTHROMYCIN.
CĂTĂLINA DANIELA STAN1*, ALINA STEFANACHE2, DAN EUGEN DIACONU3, MIRCEA DUMITRACHE1

1Drugs Industry and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Department
2General and Inorganic Chemistry Department University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa", Faculty of Pharmacy, 16 Universitătii Street, 700115, Iasi, România
3 S.C. "Antibiotice" S.A., 1 Valea Lupului Street, 707410, Iasi, România
*corresponding author: cdstan@IndMed.umfiasi.ro,


- Abstract -

The monoethyl-succinyl chloride is an acylation agent for erythromycin, in order to obtain erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The current technology uses this acyl chloride after its purification by distillation under low pressure. This purified acyl chloride is further used as an acylation agent for erythromycin. In this study we tried to improve the monoethyl-succinyl chloride synthesis, having in view to use the acyl chloride without distillation, and so to decrease the raw materials consumption, inclusively the thionyl chloride excess, and so to cut down the costs, without affecting the quality of final product. There were studied 4 variants, one of them proved to be the most propitious.

- erythromycin esters
- erythromycin ethylsuccinate
- semisynthesis
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11. STUDIES REGARDING PREPARATION AND EVALUATION FROM OPHTHALMIC THERAPEUTIC SYSTEM OF IN SITU GEL FORMING SYSTEMS WITH PIROXICAM.
L. HÎNCU1, D. LUPULEASA1, A. ANDRIES1, V. ORDEANU2, MAGDALENA MITITELU1, OANA MĂNESCU1

1University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Traian Vuia street, Bucharest
2Army Center for Medical Research, Bucharest
*corresponding author: lucianhincu@gmail.com


- Abstract -

The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by the conventional ophthalmic solutions due to pre-corneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel forming systems, with upon instillation as drops into the eye undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. This may result in better ocular availability of the drug.
The purpose of this work was to develop an ophthalmic delivery system of the piroxicam, based on the concept of ion activated in situ gelation. Gellan gum (Gelrite®), a novel ophthalmic vehicle, which gels in the presence of mono or divalent cations present in the lacrimal fluid, was used as the gelling agent. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious (in a uveitis induced rat eye model) and provided sustained release of the drug over an 8-hour period in vitro.

- Gellan
- Piroxicam
- Ocular delivery
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12. INTERNAL STANDARD VERSUS EXTERNAL STANDARD IN BIOANALYTICAL ASSAY FOR BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDIES.
I. MIRCIOIU1, A.ALDEA3, VALENTINA ANUTA1,2*, OLIMPIA NEAGU4, DALIA MIRON1,2, F. RADULESCU1,2, F. ENACHE5

1 Biopharmacy & Pharmacol Res, 23 Pitar Mos Str., Bucharest, Romania
2UMF Carol Davila, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Traian Vuia Str., Bucharest, Romania
3Pfizer Romania S.R.L., Bucharest, Romania
4National Medicine Agency, Bucharest, Romania
5Petru Poni Technical College., Onesti, Romania
*corresponding author: office@bpres.ro; vali_anuta@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

The paper presents the evaluation of performances for two different quantification methods (using Internal and External Standard, respectively) of cephalexin in plasma samples and of their impact in the evaluation of drugs pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence.
Deproteinisation of plasma samples, separation by reversed-phase mechanism and UV detection were performed for determination of cephalexin. Paracetamol was used as Internal Standard. HPLC method used a Kromasil 100-5 C18 column, with an isocratic elution (1 mL/min) at 45°C column temperature. The chromatographic method was applied for evaluation of plasma concentrations in a single-dose (500mg), two-way, cross-over bioequivalence study with 24 healthy volunteers enrolled.
Two different quantification methods were applied and evaluated:
- Internal Standard Method - in which drug concentrations were calculated by normalizing the drug peak area to the internal standard peak area and interpolation onto AA/ASI (c) calibration curve;
- External Standard Method: in which drug concentrations were calculated by interpolation of the drug peak areas onto AA (c) calibration curves.
The calibration curves were linear in the range 0.25-50 µg/ml with a quantification limit of 0.25 µg/mL, for the Internal Standard Method, while for the External Standard Method the calibration curves were linear in the range 2.5-50 µg/ml with a quantification limit of 2.5 µg/mL. The quantification limit (LLOQ) for the External Standard approach couldn't be lowered less than ten times LLOQ of the Internal Standard approach. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of data provided similar estimations for area under curve in the time interval 0-t (AUC0-t), plasma maximum concentration (Cmax), time of the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) and area under curve in the time interval 0- ∞ (AUC0- ∞ ) and dissimilar estimations for plasma concentration half time (t1/2) and area under curve extrapolated after last experimental point (AUCextra). Estimations concerning 90% confidence intervals for ratios of pharmacokinetic parameters defining bioequivalence were practically independent on the bioanalytical method.
The Internal Standard method presented higher accuracy and precision than External Standard method, especially for the low concentrations.
The evaluated methods led to similar results in the evaluation of bioequivalence due to the fact that low concentrations did not influence significantly the main pharmacokinetic parameters. Consequently, from the "biopharmaceutical" point of view, the methods are equivalent.

- Internal Standard
- External Standard
- Bioanalytical assay
- Bioequivalence
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13. STUDY OF ALBENDAZOLE-HYDROXYPROPYL-ß-CYCLODEXTRIN BINARY SYSTEMS.
CRISTINA TRANDAFIRESCU1*, ÁRPÁD GYÉRESI2, MIHÁLY KATA3, ZOLTÁN AIGNER3, ZOLTÁN SZABADAI4

1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 1st Eftimie Murgu Str., Timisoara, România
2University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 38th Gheorghe Marinescu Str., Târgu-Mures, România
3University of Szeged, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 6th Eötvös Str., Szeged, Hungary
4Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Drug Analysis, 1st Eftimie Murgu Str., Timisoara, România
*corresponding author: chimfarmatm@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

Albendazole is an anthelminthic drug practically insoluble in water. Cyclodextrin complexation was used to improve the solubility of albendazole. Binary systems containing albendazole and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin were prepared in two molar ratios and the dissolution profiles of the binary systems in both simulated gastric medium and intestinal medium, were determined. Albendazole-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin interactions in aqueous solution were studied by phase solubility curves and in the solid state by thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffractometry.

- Albendazole
- hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin
- dissolution properties
- differential scanning calorimetry
- X-ray powder diffractometry
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14. EXPRESSION OF METALLOTHIONEIN IN CHRONIC HEPATITIS C. AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.
CAMELIA STĂNCIULESCU1, NICULINA MITREA2, MONICA BANITĂ3, CĂTĂLINA PISOSCHI1, VIOLETA COMĂNESCU4

1U.M.F. Craiova, Faculty of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Department
2U.M.F. "Carol Davila" Bucharest, Faculty of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Department
3U.M.F.Craiova, Faculty of Dentistry, Histology Department
4Emergency County Hospital Craiova, Pathology Department


- Abstract -

The purpose of the present study was to assess the expression of metallothionein (MT) and its correlation with apoptosis in liver tissues of patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Liver biopsies from 14 patients with chronic hepatitis C were used for the assessment of MT expressions. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on 3 µm rehydrated sections with the primary antibody mouse monoclonal antimetallothionein. Apoptosis was evaluated through TUNEL method (Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling).
We noted immunopositive reaction for MT in both nuclei and cytoplasm of many hepatocytes. The level of MT expression was increased in those hepatocytes surrounding the area with the inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis. TUNEL positive nuclei were observed in hepatocytes all around the liver lobule.
These data assumed that the expression of metallothionein was correlated with apoptosis, so this protein might be a possible marker for apoptosis in chronic hepatitis C.

- Metallothionein
- Apoptosis
- chronic hepatitis C
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15. PHARMACEUTICAL HUMAN RESOURCES IN OPEN CIRCUIT PHARMACIES (COMMUNITY) - FACTORS FOR MEDICINE ACCESSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY
ADRIANA ELENA TĂEREL*

UMF "Carol Davila", Bucharest, Faculty of Pharmacy, Traian Vuia, 6
*corresponding author: adriana.taerel@yahoo.com


- Abstract -

The present paper presents data concerning pharmaceutical personnel employment (human resources) in open circuit pharmacies as a factor for medicine accessibility and availability. The tables present the ratio pharmacist/open-circuit pharmacy, taking into account the increase in the number of pharmacies and the compliance with the legislative provisions pertaining to the employment of pharmaceutical personnel.
The results show the following values for the indicators studied:
- for a pharmacy serving the community, the average ratio pharmacy/pharmacists is 2;
- an open-circuit pharmacy provides drugs for an average medicines for approximately 4437 patients;
- one pharmacist working in an open-circuit pharmacy ensures medicines for approximately 1953 people
The present work tries to analyze some specific indicators concerning the employment of pharmacists in open-circuit pharmacies. The purpose of this research targets the conformity between the legal provisions and the actual situation existing within the country's territory.

- Specific indicators
- Accessibility
- Availability
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